In any form of teaching, assumptions are made about the kind of learning that the teacher hopes will take place, and about the process of learning. In other words, the teacher has a model of learning, although it may not be explicit: indeed, the teacher may not be aware of it herself. What are the assumptions about theories of learning which lie behind educational programs? What kind of learning is predicted by the designer of a particular piece of software? In order to do this we need to look at some of the theories of learning which are relevant: behaviorism, constructivism and “socio-cultural” theory, derived from the work of Vygotsky.
Learning theories, which provide a deep rationality and understanding in changing teaching practices and standards, are domineering to the choice and employment of assessment and instructional scaffolding techniques. The paradigm shifts of assessment “of” learning to assessment “for” learning has brought diversity to educational practice especially in the circulation of creativity and critical thinking among students. Teachers are to embrace this challenge of systematization of assessment and instructional scaffolding techniques if they are committed to effective teaching and learning. Therefore, they need to extend feedback and feed-forward mechanisms and model situations for the learners to engage in appropriate action which lead them to the closure of the gap between current and good performance.
Here are some practical implications of theories analyzed here together with links to their source and context.
- Potential to learn leads to frustration if not satisfied. Connectionism
- Negative reinforcement (punishment) does not really lead to any kind of learning. Connectionism
- Repetition enhances learning. Connectionism
- Reward and punishment do not initiate learning, but rather can motivate to present already learned behavior. Sign Learning, Operant conditioning
- Students need to be able to learn at their own pace. The Keller plan, Programmed instruction
- Students must have learning objectives defined. The Keller plan, Conditions of learning
- In order to advance to the next unit, a student needs to demonstrate mastery of the preceding unit. The Keller plan, Programmed instruction
Long-term memory and knowledge organization
- Human knowledge is organized in the long-term memory which has practically unlimited capacity and duration. A Brief History of Human Memory Systems Research
- Representations in the long-term memory can be stored as logogens (verbal stimuli) or imagens (non-verbal stimuli). Dual coding theory
- In order to acquire knowledge into long-term memory, it has to complete the time-consuming process of consolidation. During that time, new knowledge is vulnerable to trace decay and retroactive/proactive interference. A Brief History of Human Memory Systems Research
- A schema is a hierarchical mental framework humans use to represent and organize remembered information. Schema theory
- A script is a mental framework for representation of complex event sequences. Script theory
Working memory and cognitive architecture
- Human working memory has a limited capacity of 7±2 or 4±1 chunks of information. A chunk is a unit operated as a whole and it has a different meaning for an expert and for a novice. Human Working Memory
- Human working memory has four components: phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer and central executive. Visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop allow parallel processing of visual and auditive information. Human Working Memory, Cognitive load theory
- Since working memory has a limited capacity learning won’t occur if that capacity is exceeded. Cognitive load theory
- Meaningful learning won’t occur unless the learner possesses necessary prior knowledge. Assimilation theory
- Comprehension and retention depend mostly on the schemata the reader already possesses. Schema Theory
- The meaning is not conveyed by the teacher and is not in (educational) information. Rather meaning is derived by the student from his existing knowledge (schemata) and its interaction with presented information. Schema Theory
- Learning is not a passive, but a conscious, active process. Constructivism, Cognitivism
- Learning is the process of knowledge construction/acquisition. Constructivism/Cognitivism
- Learning occurs through interaction of learner’s prior knowledge (knowledge schemes), ideas and experience. Constructivism
- Learning is a socially enhanced process. Constructivism, Social Cognitive Theory, Social Development Theory
- Meaningful learning won’t occur unless the new ideas are presented in a clear way that enables their relating to other ideas. Assimilation theory
- The teacher should advise students how and in which context to apply and transfer the just gained knowledge in the world outside the classroom. Conditions of learning
- The teacher should provide guidance to students in discussion, answer their questions and offer them additional materials on topic. Conditions of learning
- Starting point for any learning is experience, yet different people learn better using different learning styles. One of the classification of these styles is to abstract or concrete experience or conceptualization. Experiential learning
Instructional design principles
- Modality principle – learning will be enhanced if presenting textual information in an auditory format, rather than in visual format, when it is accompanied with other visual information like a graph, diagram or animation. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning
- Redundancy principle – capacity of both human information channels can unnecessarily be overloaded by redundant information presented through both channels. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning
- Spatial contiguity principle – information processing is easier when two related visual information sources are closer to one other. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning
- Temporal contiguity principle – simultaneous presentation of related information should be most similar to the way human mind operates and has provided good experimental results, same as presenting related multi-modal information with very short time differences. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning
- Coherence principle – extraneous material that may be interesting or motivating but is irrelevant and generally wastes learning resources. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning
- Individual differences principle – emphasizes influence of prior knowledge and cognitive capacity to results of learning. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning
- Signaling effect – presents the increase in the learning outcomes due to promotion of attention to relevant information. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning
- Segmenting effect – means that learning should be more efficient if a continued animation or narration could be split into more smaller parts. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning
- Worked examples effect – presenting worked examples before asking students to try to solve one. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning
- Synthesizers – (diagrams, images or other) enable easier meaningful integration and assimilation of new knowledge into existing knowledge. Elaboration theory
- Concept maps – visual representation of the relationships between concepts. Concept mapping
- Present topic with gradually increasing complexity. Elaboration theory, Cognitive theory of multimedia learning
- Advance organizers – introductory material presented before the learning material at a higher level of abstraction, generality, and inclusiveness. Assimilation theory
- See also: Case-Based Learning, Simulation-Based Learning, Goal Based Scenarios, Problem-Based Learning, Inquiry-Based Learning, Incidental Learning
Humanist dimension of learning
- Learning is a natural desire, a mean of self-actualization and development of personal potentials. The importance of learning lies in the process, not outcome. Humanism
- We cannot teach another person directly; we can only facilitate his learning. This should be the goal of the educational process and teachers through realness, prizing and empathy. Facilitation theory
- Students should be invited by their teachers to develop their potentials. People, places, policies, programs and processes related to the educational process should be maximally inviting. Invitational learning
Connectivist dimension of learning
Since knowledge is nowadays rapidly growing and changing, the process of learning should not be focused on acquiring more knowledge into or from each of available information sources, but on connecting to them and maintaining those connections. Connectivism
I enrolled in Professional Certification Program (PTC) to finish my Masteral in PUP, hopefully next year and to be a license teacher. I want to be called a professional.
As I studied the EDS 111 that covers The Principles of Teaching, I have learned so many things from the topics and deepened my awareness to the Teaching Professionalism and Principles of Effective Teaching. Based on my observation, there are some teachers that are professionals but are not effective teachers and vice versa. But teaching is one of the noble professions of the world.
Teacher professionalism refers to how teachers conduct themselves with the highest standards in and out of the classrooms and even in the workplace. This includes appearance and punctuality to using proper language and building strong relationships with colleagues. Also, the teacher’s character such as patience, determination, courage, and respect for children. I think teachers should also understand that they have a responsibility to collaborate and cooperate with faculty, staff, administration, parents, and community members. I wasn’t aware that joining professional organization and active participation in civic activities is also part of teacher professionalism and part of teacher professionalism is the enhancement of knowledge and skills.
“Teaching learning process is based on direct interaction between the students and the teacher. To perform this task effectively and efficiently the teacher needs to be proficient in interpersonal skills” (Dr. K. Malik, 2012).
I have learned that in order that a meaningful learning be an outcome of instruction, teachers must clearly understand how to adjust and refine their practices to address students’ needs. To develop a sense of control over their decision making, teachers must believe that they have the power to take action and that their action will impact student learning. a teacher’s focus should be to provide assistance to students in need, and provide cultural tools as educational resources. Teachers should provide for group and peer learning, in order for students to support each other through the discovery process. Especially in today’s diverse classroom, the teacher needs to be sensitive to her student’s cultural background and language, and be an active participant in his knowledge construction.
To sum up, teachers’ beliefs, practices and attitudes are significant for understanding and enhancing educational processes. They are closely related to teachers’ strategies for dealing with challenges in their daily professional life and to their general well-being, and they create students’ learning environment and influence student motivation and achievement. Also, the role of the teacher in present era is not just to teach content based conceptual knowledge. Rather a teacher of the day has to cope with net generation who are equipped with information communication related knowledge and skills. The image of the teacher has been changed from tradition to transformational to become an effective teacher in 21st century classroom – this effective teaching requires that the teacher should have full command on the subjects; keeps her updated with new emerging technologies; should know that the knowledge is not fixed; but it has to be actively constructed through personal and social experiences and to enable the students to learn how to learn. The teacher should care about the wellbeing of the students and should be result oriented.
To become a professional and effective teacher at the same is not that easy. Effective teachers are themselves at a life-long learning process. They are able to analyze situations and use their professional knowledge appropriately to enhance students’ learning and to develop their personality in order to make a better a humanity. It allows the teacher to keep on learning and seeing things from different angles.
However, aside from the qualities stated in the eight principles of effective teacher by Swain, an effective teacher must have a skill for proper and correct assessment of her/his students’ progress. Monitoring learning, achievement and assessing the knowledge, skills, and attitudes/ values students have gained. Gathering and interpreting evidence to make judgments about student learning is the crucial link between learning outcomes, content and teaching and learning activities. So teacher must have knowledge on assessment.
Eight principles for effective teaching (Swain and Swan, 2007)
- Build on the knowledge learners bring to sessions.
Effective teachers and trainers assess and use prior learning and adapt their teaching to the needs of the learners.
Teaching is a profession that is considered to be a rewarding challenging and complex role. An effective teacher does not simply teach knowledge their students and instead aims to arm students with the knowledge, skills, understanding and attitudes that will prepare students for life-long learning.
One of the most challenging principles of teaching for me is the knowledge of learners. When the school year first begins even the most experienced teacher has to learn about the new students. It is not always easy when these children with different backgrounds and learning abilities enter the room. There are several strategies that will help any teacher become successful at meeting this difficult challenge.
Background history is not as easy if the teacher is working with pre-schooler like me who does not have a portfolio and the only way is to discuss the child’s abilities and background during orientation.
The more children know about their world, the easier it is for them to read and learn when they get to school. Our role is to help children learn new information, ideas, and vocabulary and how to use this knowledge to become full participants in their own learning. To help children to connect new information and ideas to what they already know and understand without forcing them. Pre-school or Kindergarten teachers can do all of this while playing. In preschool, play is a necessary element to learn. Play is very significant for a child during the early childhood years.
Play is a necessary element of healthy development for children of all ages. Play influences all areas of development; it offers children the opportunity to learn about the self, others, and the physical environment (Catron & Allen, 2007).
- Expose and discuss common misconceptions.
Effective teachers and trainers systematically expose, challenge and discuss common mistakes and misconceptions.
Much like in healthcare, and unlike many traditional business models, teachers always need to be ready to adjust on the fly. The ability to seamlessly move from a pre-planned activity to a spontaneous need is not only an important trait, but indicative of an overall ability to manage busy and stressful situations with self-confidence.
Most people have heard the sayings “You learn from your mistakes” or “Adversity is the school of wisdom.” Meanwhile, it is a general consensus that making mistakes is an important part of the learning process. This is because if, instead of giving up in frustration after making a mistake, we work constructively to understand the mistake, the strategy to solve the problem stays with us better than if we just memorize the solution. Despite this, in our educational system, mistakes are more often punished than seen as an opportunity to learn.
We should see mistakes as a source of understanding. I have just realized that when my child or students are mindful of incorrect solution concepts while working on a problem, they do understand that there is a problem so we should not just correct their mistake but help them to identify and understand the reason for the mistake.
As teacher, mistakes is an important foundation for the lesson structure and individual student development.
Kaizen (改善), Japanese for “improvement”, or “change for the better” refers to philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes.
I always heard from my previous Japanese employers that “best practices” in previous projects will be equally successful in another project. In some cases, “best practices” from one context can be counter-productive in another context. Practices and processes from previous projects should be used for learning and improvement. No practice or process is both complete and optimal – once we master it at one level, we see deficiencies that were previously hidden and the cycle of improvement begins again. You should always challenge yourself to experiment and find better ways of doing things and beating your own standards for excellence.
I agree. Mistakes are a part of being human. Mistakes or misconceptions are not signs of failure. Appreciate mistakes for what they are – precious life lessons that are used for learning and for others to learn form. Part of continuous improvement is learning from mistakes. The only failure is the failure of not learning from your mistakes.
It is important to foster continuous learning so we, as individual/teachers, constantly get better at everything we do—improving our work, making decisions, holding effective lessons. Always going over what we’ve done, identifying what went well and what didn’t, and finding ways to get better the next time around. Remember the PDCA Cycle, too. J
- Develop effective questioning.
Effective teachers and trainers use a variety of lower-level and higher-level open questions rather than a continuous diet of closed recall questions.
A teacher may vary his or her purpose in asking questions during a single lesson, or a single question may have more than one purpose.
In general, research shows that instruction involving questioning is more effective than instruction without questioning. Questioning is one of the nine research-based strategies presented in Classroom Instruction That Works (Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock 2001).
One important finding is that questions that focus student attention on important elements of a lesson result in better comprehension than those that focus on unusual or interesting elements. Questions should also be structured so that most elicit correct responses
- Use cooperative small group work.
Effective teachers and trainers use cooperative small group work so that all learners are able to discuss important ideas. This has positive effects on learning, social skills and self-esteem.
We use group work to enhance our students’ learning. Whether the goal is to increase student understanding of content, to build particular transferable skills, or some combination of the two, teachers often turn to cooperative small group work to capitalize on the benefits of peer-to-peer instruction, to promote students working together to maximize their own and each other’s learning.
Like in our learning centre where we teach pre-schoolers (childcare and Jr. Toddlers), they function best when working in small groups due to their still developing social and cognitive skills, so the bulk of the preschool day should be devoted to individual or small group activities. When children work with only a few other children at a time, they learn important lessons about cooperation, compromise and the give and take of conversation. Also, when working in small groups with an adult leader, children are able to receive the more focused attention they need for completing complex tasks and activities.
The benefits of small group activities for teachers are plenty. When children work in small groups, this will free up teachers to focus on a few children at a time. Teachers may be able to observe children more closely. Also, teachers have the choice to place children in groups based on ability or interests. This will make observation and jotting down care points very easy for the teacher.
- Emphasise methods rather than answers.
Effective teachers and trainers do not worry too much about whether or not learners complete every task, but instead they try to increase the power of learners to explain and use mathematical ideas.
Focus on what has been learned rather than what has been ‘done’. Teachers who promote reflective classrooms ensure that students are fully engaged in the process of making meaning. They organize instruction so that students are the producers, not just the consumers, of knowledge. To be reflective means to mentally wander through where we have been and to try to make some sense out of it. Most classrooms are oriented more to the present and the future than to the past. Such an orientation means that students (and teachers) find it easier to discard what has happened and to move on without taking stock of the seemingly isolated experiences of the past. Teachers use many strategies to guide students through a period of reflection like discussions, interviews, and questioning.
As a teacher, I always use notes for my observations to get a more detailed account of each day of every child and do the reflection to check if they have learned from our lessons and reacted on our activities. For students, for example out lesson is about “Things Around”, I ask them to draw things on their minds, what he do/don’t like/love, asking them to tell a story about it, to develop their metacognitive skills. (Metacognition (thinking about thinking) is a general term to describe the processes involved when learners plan, monitor, evaluate and subsequently make changes to their learning behaviours)
- Use rich collaborative tasks.
Effective teachers and trainers use rich collaborative tasks that:
- are accessible and extendable,
- allow learners to make decisions,
- involve learners in testing, proving, explaining, reflecting, interpreting,
- promote discussion and communication,
- encourage originality and invention,
- encourage ‘what if?’ and ‘what if not?’ questions,
- are enjoyable and contain the opportunity for surprise.
Based on the details above, I think self-directed/online learning where students take charge of their learning process is using a rich collaborative tasks. It gives students a chance to interact with their teachers/instructors more compared to students in the classroom. Collaborative helps in the development of higher-level thinking, oral communication, self-management, and leadership skills. Promotion of student-teacher interaction. Increase in student retention, self-esteem, and responsibility. Exposure to and an increase in understanding of diverse perspectives.
Types of collaborative activities. Pair or group discussions. Work together on shared tasks, e.g. matching, sorting, ranking. Activities with a competitive element/games, e.g. bingo. drama and role play, information exchange activities, including barrier games and jigsaw activities.
For example, in our learning center, we have a building/drawing area with different types of building blocks and crayons where children play by two’s or group of 5.
Collaborative play is a type of play that involves taking turns, sharing, following rules, negotiating, and compromising. Children who engage in collaborative play work together on projects to reach a common goal.
Games are a great way to promote collaborative play in early childhood education! Try these three with the children in your care:
Build Animals – Consider using Animal Block Puzzles in your classroom. Group the children in pairs, assign each pair a different animal, and encourage them to work together to complete the puzzle with their assigned animal.
Stack Things Up – The Stack Up Board Game is another great option for promoting collaborative play. This two- to six-player game is centered on cooperation. Children will learn to work together in an enjoyable way.
Play Ball – A third suggestion for encouraging collaborative play in your classroom is separating the children into pairs and having them roll a ball back and forth to each other. This activity will help build their gross motor skills while also promoting sharing and working together.
Collaboratively creating music is another way to get children in tune with each other. The 15-Piece Classroom Rhythm Set is perfect for preschool musicians. Assign each child an instrument and encourage the class to make music together. Switch up the instrument assignments periodically so that each child can experiment with several different instruments. The children will love exploring new musical sounds and practicing teamwork.
Building together is also considered collaborative play. Working together to build the perfect tower requires negotiation and teamwork. The children in your classroom can build with LEGO® & DUPLO® bricks and/or blocks. You can encourage them to build the tallest tower, the longest tower, etc. so that they have a common goal to work towards. The children in your classroom will enjoy building a variety of different structures together.
A final idea for promoting collaborative play is encouraging dramatic play in small groups or pairs, such as making meals together in the play kitchen and playing house. When the children in your classroom participate in these dramatic play activities, encourage them to take turns with different roles. These fun activities will foster teamwork and negotiation and help children learn to compromise and share.
- Create connections between closely related concepts.
Effective teachers and trainers use activities that create connections between closely related concepts.
In the primary classroom, even though teachers and students generally spend the day together, it cannot be assumed that students will experience their learning as coherent, connected or cumulative. Students need help to see and build connections within and beyond any immediate interaction or activity. It is essential that students understand how a specific teaching task and idea fits within and contributes to their learning in the longer term and across the whole sequence of unit/topic tasks.
Play creates a zone of proximal development in the child. In play, the child always behaves beyond his average age, above his daily behaviour; in play it is as though he were a head taller than himself. As in the focus of a magnifying glass, play contains all developmental tendencies in a condensed form and is itself a major source of development. (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 102)
Play is a necessary element of healthy development for children of all ages. Play influences all areas of development; it offers children the opportunity to learn about the self, others, and the physical environment (Catron & Allen, 2007).
In preschool, play is a necessary element to learn. Play is very significant for a child during the early childhood years. Therefore, knowledge of the development of different types of play gives educators and parents a foundation for proper teaching strategies. Through play, children build important knowledge that encompasses many developmental domains, such as literacy and mathematics.
- Use technology in appropriate ways.
Effective teachers and trainers use technology to present mathematical concepts in dynamic, visually exciting ways that engage and motivate learners.
With the advancing technology age, efforts need to be made by both teacher and technology experts to meet in the middle. Just like we cannot expect technology experts to automatically become amazing teachers, we cannot expect our teachers to be immediately knowledgeable about how to operate a Smart Board or how to manage a class of students with iPads.
Computers are becoming more and more common in all aspects of our life. They are simply tools that help people to be more productive. More and more jobs require applicants to be familiar with computers. As computers have become more prevalent in everyday life and in the workplace… like other countries, thru our TESDA, our government and private schools as well has recognized the need to increase the technological background of our people to better compete in global markets aside from implementing the K-12 program. Computer technology when used in education encourages the development of problem solving, analytical and research skills. Effective tech integration changes classroom dynamics, encouraging student-centered project-based learning and there is no question that the Internet and other digital technologies have required teachers to learn more and stay up to date with more than just pedagogy.
Here are some ways you can use technology in your math class which are more interesting and innovative than using an interactive white board or having students watch instructional videos. Note that these ideas are all examples of potential student uses of technology.
- Record video tutorials: Instead of students digesting tutorials created by someone else, have them create their own tutorials.
- Create video problems: Students can use a video camera, or slides in a slide show, and create their own mathematics word problems. The advantage of doing this with technology instead of on paper is that students are more likely to have to create something original in video format, which will make them think more about the mathematics.
- Use screen casting to create “where am I now” videos of projects in progress. This will allow students to communicate with themselves or their group mates (or in a formative way with you) what stage they are currently at in their project.
- Create videos or take pictures of real life phenomena that have embedded mathematical ideas.
- Create programs to solve mathematical problems.
- Learn mathematics through creating programming projects.
- Use virtual tools for geometric constructions.
- Create simulations to explore mathematical ideas.
- Join online communities of people interested in mathematical problem solving.
- Play games with embedded math concepts (not the same as practicing skills).
- Use a computer to do the computation portion of a math problem.
- Use virtual math manipulative.
- Create dynamic graphs.
- Teach other people mathematics through Hangouts, Skype, and chat rooms.
- Allow everyone to respond to questions (for formative assessment) through their cell phone or browser (alternative: Active prompt)
- Collect real life data that would otherwise be hard to collect.
- Create presentations to share their thinking on a project or problem.
- Make and share interactive mathematical diagrams.
- Survey people.
- Create mathematical art.
Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to thank all Faculty In-charge of PTC course and people behind this UPOU online learning. KUDOS to All! I have learned so much from this program. Thank you very much. I’m so thankful that I did not give up.
Never give up. Focus on what you want. Age doesn’t matter in education. As the song says, “I believe I can fly” from here. CONGRATULATIONS TO ALL!!!
2017-2018 3rd Semester EDS103 Teacher Daisy Jane C. Calado/Faculty In-charge/UPOU
“UPOU offers the PTC program, an 18-unit non-degree program, which provides non-education degree holders the qualification to take the Licensure Exam for Teachers (LET). PTC will give students an understanding of the cognitive, socio-emotional, and physical characteristics of children/adolescents and how they develop and learn; knowledge of subjects they teach and how to teach them; skills for managing and monitoring student learning, and a reflective attitude about their practice, and an openness to adapt their teaching to new findings, ideas and theories.”